My fifth research project in 2015 was to find out the factors that affect the vibration mitigation effect of structure equipped with Rectangular Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLD). TLD is a kind of device consists of several tanks with water partially filled and mounted on the top of the structure (it can be combined with water storage system). During the earthquake, the sloshing liquid allows to generate anti-phase damping forces that effectively mitigate the vibration of structure due to the effect of inertia.
The optimal vibration mitigation effect of structure can be achieved when the sloshing frequency of fluid in TLD is close to the natural frequency of structure. The liquid will intensely slosh under this condition. When the wave amplitude reaches a critical value, the overturn or collapse of wave front causes the breaking wave. This will always transform large amount of wave energy into turbulent kinetic energy and dissipate into thermal energy. That's why TLD can effectively mitigate the vibration of structure under this condition.
This project was awarded the first place at national science fair 2015, if you are interested in my project, you can download the report here